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Logical Deduction - Aptitude Questions and Answers - RejinpaulPlacement

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In each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

Give answer:

(A) If only conclusion I follows
(B) If only conclusion II follows
(C) If either I or II follows
(D) If neither I nor II follows and
(E) If both I and II follow.

41.
Statements:Raman is always successful. No fool is always successful.

Conclusions:
I. Raman is a fool.
II.Raman is not a fool.
Answer & Solution
Answer: (B) Only conclusion II follows

Solution: Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, only II follows.
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42.
Statements:Some desks are caps. No cap is red.

Conclusions:
I. Some caps are desks.
II.No desk is red.
Answer & Solution
Answer: (A) Only conclusion I follows

Solution: Since one premise is particular and the other premise is negative, the conclusion must be particular negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some desks are not red'. However, I is the converse of the first premise and thus it holds.
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43.
Statements:Some hens are cows. All cows are horses.

Conclusions:
I. Some horses are hens.
II.Some hens are horses.
Answer & Solution
Answer: (E) Both I and II follow

Solution: Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, II follows. I is the converse of II and so it also holds.
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44.
Statements:All water is divine. All temples are divine.

Conclusions:
I. All water is temple.
II.All temples are water.
Answer & Solution
Answer: (D) Neither I nor II follows

Solution: Since the middle term 'divine' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion can be drawn.
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45.
Statements: All men are dogs. All dogs are cats.

Conclusions:
I. All men are cats.
II.All cats are men.
Answer & Solution
Answer: (A) Only conclusion I follows

Solution: Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative. However, conclusion II, being an A-type proposition, distributes the term 'cats'. Since the term 'cats' is distributed in II without being distributed in any of the premises, so conclusion II cannot follow. Thus, only I follows.
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