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Logical Deduction - Aptitude Questions and Answers - RejinpaulPlacement

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In each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

Give answer:

(A) If only conclusion I follows
(B) If only conclusion II follows
(C) If either I or II follows
(D) If neither I nor II follows and
(E) If both I and II follow.

21.
Statements:All poles are guns. Some boats are not poles.

Conclusions:
I. All guns are boats.
II.Some boats are not guns.
Answer & Solution
Answer: (D) Neither I nor II follows

Solution: Clearly, the term 'guns' is distributed in both the conclusions without being distributed in any of the premises. So, neither conclusion follows.
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22.
Statements:Many scooters are trucks. All trucks are trains.

Conclusions:
I. Some scooters are trains.
II.No truck is a scooter.
Answer & Solution
Answer: (A) Only conclusion I follows

Solution: Since the first premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. Thus, only I follows.
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23.
Statements:Some papers are pens. Angle is a paper.

Conclusions:
I. Angle is not a pen.
II.Angle is a pen.
Answer & Solution
Answer: (C) Either I or II follows

Solution: Since the middle term 'papers' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, I and II involve only the extreme terms and form a complementary pair. Thus, either I or II follows.
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24.
Statements:All birds are tall. Some tall are hens.

Conclusions:
I. Some birds are hens.
II.Some hens are tall.
Answer & Solution
Answer: (B) Only conclusion II follows

Solution: Since the middle term 'tall' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, II is the converse of the second premise and so it holds.
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25.
Statements:Some papers are pens. Some pencils are pens.

Conclusions:
I. Some pens are pencils.
II.Some pens are papers.
Answer & Solution
Answer: (E) Both I and II follow

Solution: Since both premises are particular, no definite conclusion follows. However, I is the converse of second premise, while II is the converse of the first premise. So, both of them hold.
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