


6.
Statements:All roads are waters. Some waters are boats.
Conclusions: I. Some boats are roads. II.All waters are boats. Answer & Solution
Answer: (D) Neither I nor II follows
Solution: The first premise is A type and distributes the subject. So, the middle term 'waters' which forms its predicate, is not distributed. The second premise is I type and does not distribute either subject or predicate. So, the middle term 'waters' forming its subject is not distributed. Since the middle term is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. 7.
Statements: No bat is ball. No ball is wicket.
Conclusions: I. No bat is wicket. II.All wickets are bats. 8.
Statements: All flowers are trees. No fruit is tree.
Conclusions: I.No fruit is flower. II.Some trees are flowers. Answer & Solution
Answer: (E) Both I and II follow
Solution: As discussed above, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'No flower is fruit'. I is the converse of this conclusion and thus it follows. II is the converse of the first premise and so it also holds. 9.
Statements:Every minister is a student. Every student is inexperienced.
Conclusions: I.Every minister is inexperienced. II.Some inexperienced are students. Answer & Solution
Answer: (E) Both I and II follow
Solution: 'Every' is equivalent to 'All'. Thus, since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, I follows. II is the converse of the second premise and thus it also holds. 10.
Statements:All roads are poles. No pole is a house.
Conclusions: I. Some roads are houses. II.Some houses are poles. 