Logical Deduction - Aptitude Questions and Answers - RejinpaulPlacement

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 Directions to Solve In each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts. Give answer: (A) If only conclusion I follows (B) If only conclusion II follows (C) If either I or II follows (D) If neither I nor II follows and (E) If both I and II follow.
46.
Statements:All young scientists are open-minded. No open-minded men are superstitious.

Conclusions:
I. No scientist is superstitious.
II.No young people are superstitious.
Answer: (D) Neither I nor II follows

Solution: The subject in both the conclusions is vague. The true conclusion is 'No young scientist is superstitious'. Thus, neither I nor II follows,
47.
Statements:Some pastries are toffees. All toffees are chocolates.

Conclusions:
I. Some chocolates are toffees.
II.Some toffees are not pastries.
Answer: (A) Only conclusion I follows

Solution: Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. Thus, it follows that 'Some pastries are chocolates', I is the converse of the second premise and so it holds. Since both the premises are affirmative, the conclusion cannot be negative. Thus, II does not follow.
48.
Statements:All boys are honest. Sachin is honest.

Conclusions:
I. Sachin is a boy.
II.All honest persons are boys.
Answer: (D) Neither I nor II follows

Solution: Both the premises are A type propositions. So, the middle term 'honest' forming the predicate in each is not distributed in either. Since the middle term is not distributed even once, no definite conclusion follows.
49.

Conclusions:
I. All houses are pens.
II.Some houses are pens.