Let Principal = P, Rate = R% per annum, Time = n years.
When interest is compound Annually:
When interest is compounded Half-yearly:
When interest is compounded Quarterly:
When interest is compounded Annually but time is in fraction, say 3 years.
When Rates are different for different years, say R1%, R2%, R3% for 1st, 2nd and 3rd year respectively.
Present worth of Rs. x due n years hence is given by: